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Horizontal Diver Trim

Horizontal diver trim is the foundation of good buoyancy control and efficient propulsion. Whenever we use our fins for propulsion in the water, we create directional thrust.

If our body is not horizontally trimmed (‘flat’) in the water, then we will be accidentally directing that thrust at an angle (upwards or downwards) that will interfere with our scuba buoyancy.

The trim of a diver is the orientation of the body in the water, determined by posture and the distribution of weight and volume along the body and equipment, as well as by any other forces acting on the diver.

Wikipedia

Why is horizontal diver trim important for buoyancy control?

Achieving horizontal diver trim in the water makes our propulsion more effective: all our thrust goes into covering distance and does not cause buoyancy problems. 

Being flat/horizontal also prevents any water movement (either current upon our body, or our body moving through the water) from pushing us vertically in the water column.

Horizontal diver trim allows neutral buoyancy

For an exaggerated demonstration of this factor, simply stick your hand out of a car window when driving. You can hold your hand still if it is flat.  If you angle your hand upwards, the airflow will force it upwards. 

For a diver who is in a bad, head-up/feet-down trim position, the effect of simply moving through the water will subtly force them upwards. When added to the directional (downwards) thrust from fining in that position, it will give the false impression of having more buoyancy than they actually have.

This is why many divers can maintain a constant depth whilst fining but then find themselves sinking (negatively buoyant) when they try and maintain a static position without fining.

why bad trim ruins your buoyancy

Many divers with poor buoyancy control will instinctively compensate for this lack of control by adopting a head-up/feet-down trim position.

This is a very short-sighted solution, as any buoyancy problems will become immediately apparent when the diver stops moving (i.e. on a safety stop, to take a photo, or when having to deal with a problem).

A diver should not underestimate the amount of negative buoyancy that can be offset by fining in a feet-down attitude.

How does weighting affect horizontal diver trim?

The first step towards achieving a flat horizontal trim is to ensure that you are not over-weighted. As mentioned earlier, this creates a push-pull effect across the divers’ horizontal centre of gravity (COG).

It is caused because weights are located on the torso below the COG, whereas the air that compensates for those weights is located above the COG.  The torso rises and the legs lower.  An over-weighted diver exaggerates that effect (more weight = more air to compensate).

overweighting and diver trim

What is good trim?

For optimal diver trim, the shoulders, hips and knees should be flat horizontally.

diver trim body alignment

The most common mistake that divers make with their trim is to drop their knees. This bad habit can become ingrained because some diving instructors teach their students to kneel when doing skills or go into a vertical position whenever they descend, ascend or conduct safety stops.

Practising buoyancy in the infamous “Buddha position” can also ingrain terrible habits that are counter-productive to achieving natural trim.

There are three common trim problems that divers experience.

common diver trim problems

To achieve the right body posture for holding stable trim, the secret is to keep your buttocks slightly clenched. This has the remarkable effect of locking your hips forwards; keeping your shoulders, hips and knees in horizontal alignment.

Practising to improve horizontal diver trim

The second step for achieving a flat horizontal trim is simply to practice maintaining a static hover. The diver should aim to hold themselves in a position similar to that used by a freefall parachutist; with their shoulders and hips at an equal level, the back arched, the hands clasped, to prevent sculling, and the legs and head raised.

trim accuracy 30 degrees
Set yourself targets when practising trim control

As the diver attempts to hold this static hover they will swiftly notice whether their equipment is causing any misbalance.  Having identified any tenancies to float in a non-horizontal manner, the diver can then seek to re-adjust the configuration of their equipment to mitigate this effect.

Working with a partner/observer who can give feedback on your trim practice is always beneficial. The serious practice of trim (along with other skills, such as fin techniques) can very much benefit from the use of a video camera to record and assess your technique.

Adjusting horizontal diver trim

The diver can use ‘trim weights’ to resolve major problems in their hover.  These are small weights that can be attached to the cylinder cam bands, the BCD or the ankles.  They can also experiment with the location of their diving cylinder on the BCD; raising or lowering the cylinder to shift their COG upwards or downwards along their torso.  More fine-tuning can be achieved through the consideration of specific items of diving equipment.

How Horizontal diver trim effects water resistance when scuba diving

Most notably, the choice of either positive or negatively buoyant fins can play a beneficial role in trimming.

For very fine-tuning of trim, the diver should also be aware of their arm positioning during the dive. Extending the arms forwards in front of the diver can help to bring the upper torso lower.  Holding the arms closer to the torso will negate this effect.

Next article: ‘Breathing and Buoyancy’


Previous Articles:

Scuba Buoyancy Masterclass 1of9 – Buoyancy Control for Scuba Divers

Scuba Buoyancy Masterclass 2of9 – The Need for Buoyancy Control

Scuba Buoyancy Masterclass 3of9 – Achieving Great Buoyancy Control

Scuba Buoyancy Masterclass 4of9 – Assessing Your Weight Requirements

No.1 | Scuba Buoyancy Control for Divers
No.1 | Scuba Buoyancy Control for Divers

The benefits of improving scuba buoyancy control & how it can be developed in training & practice.

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No.2 | Scuba Buoyancy Control Benefits
No.2 | Scuba Buoyancy Control Benefits

What are the buoyancy control benefits for scuba divers? The reasons why it is worth devoting time & effort to developing core diving skillset

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No.3 | Achieving Great Scuba Buoyancy Control
No.3 | Achieving Great Scuba Buoyancy Control

This is how you achieve great buoyancy control when scuba diving. There are a few key things to know, then you will find it easy

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No.4 | Perfect Scuba Weighting
No.4 | Perfect Scuba Weighting

How to perfect your scuba weighting. Get this right & your buoyancy control will be much easier. Advice not taught in Open Water courses

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No.5 | Horizontal Diver Trim
No.5 | Horizontal Diver Trim

Stable diver trim is the foundation for good buoyancy control and efficient propulsion. It also helps conserve the marine environment.

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No.6 | Breathing and Scuba Buoyancy
No.6 | Breathing and Scuba Buoyancy

How to control your breathing & scuba buoyancy for more comfort, confidence and competency as a scuba diver.

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No.7 | Diving Ascents and Descents
No.7 | Diving Ascents and Descents

How to improve your diving ascents & descents for safer and more comfortable scuba dives. This article can change your diving.

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No.8 | Balanced Rig Principle For Diving
No.8 | Balanced Rig Principle For Diving

The balanced rig principle for diving describes a calculated approach to the amount of weight which can be jettisoned in an emergency

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No.9 | Streamlined Dive Gear
No.9 | Streamlined Dive Gear

The benefits of streamlined dive gear and how to achieve it with your own scuba diving equipment. Small kit changes can have big effects.

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Andy Davis Technical Sidemount Wreck Diving Subic Bay Philippines RAID Courses Training

About the Author

Andy Davis is a RAID, PADI TecRec, ANDI, BSAC and SSI-qualified independent technical diving instructor who specializes in teaching sidemount, trimix and advanced wreck diving courses.

Currently residing in Subic Bay, Philippines; he has amassed more than 10,000 open circuit and CCR dives over 27 years of diving across the globe.

He has published numerous diving magazine articles, designed courses for dive training agencies and tests/reviews dive gear for scuba equipment manufacturers. He is currently writing a series of advanced diving books and creating a range of tech diving clothing and accessories

Prior to becoming a professional technical diving educator in 2006, Andy was a commissioned officer in the Royal Air Force and has served in Iraq, Afghanistan, Belize and Cyprus.

Originally posted 2011-07-13 13:32:52.

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